Frequency Specific Microcurrent & Related Research

Updated: Apr 16



A very heartfelt thanks to Dr. Carolyn McMakin, the pioneer in the field of FSM, always encouraging her trained clinicians to publish their findings in order to progress this incredible field and the future of medicine. You can learn more about Dr. McMakin here, including trainings, research, practitioners, and learning resources. Additionally, great thanks goes to the organizers of the Annual Microcurrent Case Conference, providing additional FSM education, training, and case reports.

Shetty GM, Rawat P, Sharma A. Effect of adjuvant frequency-specific microcurrents on pain and disability in patients treated with physical rehabilitation for neck and low back pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2020: 24(4); 168-175.

Sharp SJ, Huynh MT, Filart R. Frequency Specific Microcurrent as Adjunctive Therapy for Three Wounded Warriors. Journal of Medical Acupuncture. Jun 2019: 189-192.

Trang D, Trial Sponsor. Frequency Specific Microcurrent for the Treatment of Diastasis Recti. Study Record.

Ben Burnham, Ben Katholi, David Burke. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Treated With Frequency Specific Microcurrent: A Case Report. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2019: 100(12); e171-e172.

Thompson, Regina PT, PCS; Kaplan, Sandra L. PT, DPT, PhD. Frequency-Specific Microcurrent for Treatment of Longstanding Congenital Muscular Torticollis Pediatric Physical Therapy. April 2019: 31(2); E8-E15.

Harikrishna KR. Microcurrent as an adjunct therapy to accelerate chronic wound healing and reduce patient pain. Journal of Wound Care. Vol. 27, No. 5. 8 May 2018.

Adams J and McMakin C. Frequency specific microcurrent resolves chronic pain and adhesions after ulnar transposition surgery. J Nov Physiother Rehabil. 2017; 1: 099-103.

Noites, Andreia, Rita Nunes, Ana Isabel Gouveia, Alexandra Mota, Cristina Melo, Ágata Viera, Nuno Adubeiro, and José Mesquita Bastos. Effects of aerobic exercise associated with abdominal microcurrent: a preliminary study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2015: 21(4); 229-236.

Kang, Da-Haeng, Jae-Keun Jeon, and Joon-Hee Lee. Effects of Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation on Cumulative Fatigue and Muscle Tone of the Erector Spinae. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. January 2015: 27(1); 105–8.

Macfelda, Karin, Alexander Holly, and Johannes Mueller. Significant Enhancement of ATP-Synthesis in Cardiomyocytes By Electric Microcurrent. Journal of Cardiac Failure. August 1, 2015: 21(8).

Chaikin L, Kashiwa K, Bennet M, Papastergiou G, Gregory W. Microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of dry and wet macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015;9:2345-2353. Published 2015 Dec 17. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S92296

Carolyn R. McMakin and James L. Oschman. Visceral and Somatic Disorders: Tissue Softening with Frequency Specific Microcurrent. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Feb 2013. 170-177.

Ohno Y, Fujiya H, Goto A, et al. Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation facilitates regrowth of mouse soleus muscle. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10(10):1286-1294. Published 2013 Aug 7. doi:10.7150/ijms.5985

Denise Curtis, Stephen Fallows, Michael Morris, Carolyn McMakin. The efficacy of frequency specific microcurrent therapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Volume 14, Issue 3, 2010, Pages 272-279.

ISSN 1360-8592,

Rajpurohit B, Khatri SM, Metgud D, Bagewadi A. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation in bruxism associated with masticatory muscle pain - A comparative study. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21:104-6.

McMakin, Carolyn. Nonpharmacologic treatment of neuropathic pain using frequency specific microcurrent. The Pain Practitioner (2010): 68-73.

McMakin, Carolyn. R., Walter. M. Gregory, and Terry M. Phillips. Cytokine Changes with Microcurrent Treatment of Fibromyalgia Associated with Cervical Spine Trauma. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 9, no. 3 (July 1, 2005): 169–76.

McMakin CR. Microcurrent therapy: a novel treatment method for chronic low back myofascial pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2004, Pages 143-153, ISSN 1360-8592.

Huckfeldt, R., D. Mikkelson, and K. Larson. The Use of Microcurrent and Autocatalytic Silver Plated Nylon Dressings in Human Burn Patients: A Feasibility study. Maui, Hawaii: Proceedings of John Boswick Burn and Wound Symposium. 2003.

Lennox, Arlene J., Jeffrey P. Shafer, Madeline Hatcher, Janice Beil, and Sandra J. Funder. Pilot Study of Impedance-Controlled Microcurrent Therapy for Managing Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 54, no. 1 (September 1, 2002): 23–34.

Seegers, J. C., C. A. Engelbrecht, and D. H. Van Papendorp. Activation of signal-transduction mechanisms may underlie the therapeutic effects of an applied electric field. Medical hypotheses 57, no. 2 (2001): 224-230.

McMakin, Carolyn. Microcurrent treatment of myofascial pain in the head, neck, and face. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 5 (1998): 29-35.

Mercola, Joseph M., and Daniel L. Kirsch. The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy in conventional medical practice. Journal of Advancement in medicine 8, no. 2 (1995): 107-120.

Chan HK, Fung DT, Ng GY. Effects of low-voltage microamperage stimulation on tendon healing in rats. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007; 37(7): p. 399-403. 140.


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POSTER PRESENTATION: Reilly, Wayne & Mannion, Paul & Australia, Wellness & Ltd, Pty & World, Health. (2010). Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis with Interferential Frequency Microcurrent Therapy (FSM) and Monitoring with Hemaview TM Following Medication-Associated Morbidity: A Case Study.

Download PDF • 1.59MB



Navarrete HM, Nonaka H, Scholich A, et al. Liquid-Crystal Organization of Liver Tissue. Jun3 17, 2019. eLife 2019;8:e44860DOI: 10.7554/eLife.44860

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Seegers, J. C., M.-L. Lottering, A. M. Joubert, F. Joubert, A. Koorts, C. A. Engelbrecht, and D. H. van Papendorp. A Pulsed DC Electric Field Affects P2-Purinergic Receptor Functions by Altering the ATP Levels in in Vitro and in Vivo Systems. Medical Hypotheses 58, no. 2 (February 2002): 171–76.

Cheng, Ngok, Harry Van Hoof, Emmanuel Bockx, Michel J. Hoogmartens, Joseph C. Mulier, Frans J. De Dijcker, Willy M. Sansen, and William De Loecker. The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. no. 171 (November 1982): 264-272.

NOTE: Please see the extensive listing on Juliana H. J. Mortenson's Forgotten Physics page: Dr. Mortenson presented at the Frequency Specific Microcurrent Seminar in February 2021 on hypothetical mechanisms for the effects of FSM on cell membranes.



Very special thanks to Diana Cross, MD's research and integration of this work into a potential mechanism for FSM. Please also see Dr. Diana Cross' research and presentations integrating hypothesized FSM mechanisms. These can be found and purchased from the FSM Advanced Compendium.

Terrinoni, Alessandro, Calabrese, Cosimo, Basso, Daniela, Aita, Ada, Caporali, Sabrina, Plebani, Mario and Bernardini, Sergio. The circulating miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2019: 57(7); 932-953.

Kabekkodu SP, Shukla V, Varghese VK, D' Souza J, Chakrabarty S, Satyamoorthy K. Clustered miRNAs and their role in biological functions and diseases. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2018 Nov;93(4):1955-1986. doi: 10.1111/brv.12428. Epub 2018 May 24. PMID: 29797774.

Holehouse, AS., Pappu, RV. Functional implications of Intracellular PhaseTransitions. Biochemistry. 2018, 57, 2415-2423.

Ulversky, VN. Intrinsically disordered proteins in overcrowded milieu:Membrane-less organelles, phase separation, and intrinsic disorder. CurrentOpinion in Structural Biology 2017, 44:18-30

Darling, AL, et al. Intrinsically Disordered Proteome of Human Membrane-Less Organelles. Proteomics, 2017.

Ji, R. Et al. Pain regulation by non-neuronal cells and inflammation. Science Vol.354 issue 6312. Nov 2016

Guo, J, et al. A mini-review: MicroRNA in tendon injuries. J Stem Cell Res Ther(2015) 5: 303.

Andersen, HH, Duroux, M. Gazerani, P. MicroRNAs as modulators of inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. Neurobiology of Disease71(2014), 159-168.

Lombard, J. Once upon a time the cell membranes: 175 years of cell boundary research. Biol Direct. 2014. 9: 32.

Edeleva, E.V, and Shcherbata, H.R. REVIEW ARTICLE: Stress-induced EC Malteration modulates cellular microRNAs that feedback to readjust the extracellular environment and cell behavior. Front. Genet. 31 December 2013

Johno, Hisashi & Kitamura, Masanori. (2013). Pathological in Situ Reprogramming of Somatic Cells by the Unfolded Protein Response. The American journal of pathology. 23.10.1016/j.ajpath. 2013. 05.008

Brangwynne, CP. Phase transitions and size scaling of membrane-less organelles. J Cell Biol. 2013. Vol. 203 no.6. 875-881.

Cumberworth, A. et al. Review article. Promiscuity as a functional trait: intrinsically disordered regions as central players of interactomes. Biochem J(2013) 454, 361-369.

Bjersing, JL, et al. Profile of CSF microRNAs in Fibromyalgia. PLOS one, Oct 2013, Vol 8, issue 10

Luby-Phelps, K. The physical chemistry of cytoplasm and its influence on cellfunction: an update. Mol Biol of Cell, 2013, vol 24

Hunter T. Why nature chose phosphate to modify protein . Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Sep 19;367(1602):2513-6. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0013.

Jaeken, L., Mateev, VL. Coherent behaviour and the Bound State of Water and K+ imply another model of Bioenergetics: negative entropy instead of high-energy bonds. The Open Biochemistry Journal, 2012, 6, 139-159.

Leung, AK, Sharp, PA. MicroRNA functions in Stress Responses. Mol Cell. 2010 Oct 22; 40(2): 205-215.

Ball, Philip. Water as an active constituent in cell biology. Chem Rev 2008, 108, 74-108.

Corton, JM et al. Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in the cellular stress response. Current Biology, 1994. Vol 4, issue 4, 315-324.

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Henny J. Cymatics: A study of wave theory and vibration. 1967.

Life at the Cell Level




What is Resonance? While FSM works with electrical pulses (not sound per se), these videos are helpful in making resonance visible. Enjoy!

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